Livestock Studies 2018, Vol 58, Num, 3     (Pages: 007-014)

Effects of Nutrition on Reproductive Performance in Dairy Cattle

Mehmet Başalan 1 ,Gökhan Şen 1

1 Kırıkkale Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Hayvan Besleme ve Beslenme Hastalıkları Anabilim Dalı, Kırıkkale Viewed : 131 - Downloaded : 104 Although prolific ability is considered to be second after food production in farm livestock, it is taken as essential due to its indirect impact on sustainable livestock farming. Nutrition affects almost all body systems and this impact is quite high on reproductive performance. Satisfied and balanced nutrition of cattle to pass through lactation period after giving birth, evolution of embryo, development of fetus and giving birth again without problems is required for having a calf each year and growth and reproduction of the calf without diseases. Depending on the desire for high milk production, deep negative energy balance cause anestrus, unbalanced estrous or delayed estrous. Beside macronutrients such as energy and protein, researches indicated minerals and vitamins are involved in oogenesis which is an epithelization process. Mother`s hormonal status and immune system which used to fight infection can be increased or depressed by nutrition. Uterus environment in which embryo occurred and developed and nutrient exchange can be maintained by balanced nutrition and therefore it is found that early embryonic deaths and aborts can be prevented. Fetus development in mother`s uterus is parabolically increased and 70% of the birth weight of calves can occur in the last trimester of pregnancy. During this period which include drying process and dry period, producers usually limits the feed or nutrients which makes deficiency in nutrients which already increased. Nutritional relations with birth weight of calve which have positive relation with livability of calves were reported in the results of researches. Unbalanced nutrition or improper feeding during the calving interval period may cause hypocalcemia or downer cow syndrome, retentio secundarum, uterus and mammary infections anestrous and ketosis which affect reproductive performance. One of the causes of dystocia is the deficiency of nutrients such as energy and calcium which effect the muscle movements. Besides balancing the nutrients, physical forms of feeds, serving styles of feeds can have impact on reproductive performance. In conclusion, decreasing the losses of calves, providing the healthy delivery of the cattle, preventing the culling of cattle because of reproductive problems and increasing the longevity of cattle which means increasing the number of calves is possible by balancing the nutrition properly. Keywords : Calve losses, nutrition, reproduction, diseases, metabolism