Livestock Studies 1971, Vol 11, Num, 3-4     (Pages: 029-055)

Some Performance characteristics of Holştein and Brown Swiss cattle on a private farm in Central Anatolia

Orhan ALPAN ,Mahmut SERTALP

Viewed : 235 - Downloaded : 109 The purpose of this study was to investigate various productive characteristics of Holstein and Brown Swiss cattle, which were imported from West Germany in 1963 and raised on a private farm. The farm is located along the Sakarya river, 18 km from Polatlı, and represents the irrigated regions of Central Anatolia.

The study consisted of 108 Holand 74 Brown animals at various ages. Of which 16 Holstein and 18 Brown cows remained in the herd from original imported stock. The experiment started in December 1968 and lasted for two years. Milk tests were performed twice a month. Milk fat and SNF determinations were made on composite samples of morning and evening milkings. For the determination of growth rate body weight, wither hight, body length, chest girth and cannon circumference measurements were taken at 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 months of ages.

Average body measurements of Holsteins were higher than those of Browns at most of the ages. Some differences were significant (P<0.05) and some were highly significant (P<0.01). These findings indicate that Holsteins have higher growth rate and larger in body size than Brown Swiss at respective ages.

Average lactation length in Holstein and Brown cows were 295 and 376 days, respectively. The mean milk yield, on the basis of 2 x 305 – ME, in Holsteins was estimated 3093 kg and in Browns 3308 kg the difference was not significant. However, the differences in milk fat and SNF percentages and yields were found significant. The average values in Holsteins and Browns were, for milk fat ratio 3.26 and 3.48 %, for SNF ratio 8.38 and 8.79 %, for milk fat yield 102 and 118 kg, for SNF yield 261 and 297 kg respectively. These results may show that Brown cows, under the prevailling conditions, performed better than Holsteins. However, the feeding practice on the farm was irregular and lower than the optimum level so that the animals believed to be not demonstrated their genetic capacities.

The average monthly milk production per cow was the highest with 411 kg in January and lowest with 236 kg in September. Although the maiority of the calvings took place from November to April, it is spreaded throughout the year. The remarkable decrease of 108 kg milk per cow occurred in June in respect to may. This decrease was related, in addition to the start of warm season, to the drying off grasses on pastures which may indicate the irregularity in feeding practices on the farm. In the second year of the experiment brucellosis was diagnosed in the herd which was believed to be ona of the reasons of low milk production.

It may be concluded that under the prevailing conditions Holsteins were superior to Browns in growth rate and body size and Browns were superior to Holsteins in milk, milk fat and SNF production. Keywords :